Article Critique on Education Research

This is my writing sample of my article critique in my Education Research subject. This research is about Student motivation as hierarchical and multidimensional: Cross- cultural validation of personal investment theory in the Philippines.

(1) Reference

Ronnel, B. K., & Agustin, F. J. (2013). Student motivation as hierarchical and

multidimensional: Cross- cultural validation of personal investment theory in the

philippines. Universitas Psychologica, 12(3) Retrieved from

(2) Summary of Research

The aim of the research is to assess the cross-cultural validity of multidimensional and hierarchal model of Motivational goals proposed by the Personal Investment Theory in the Philippine Setting. The research question of the study is,  Is the Personal Investment Theory Framework valid in its applicability of hierarchal and multidimensional model of student motivation in Philippine Setting?

In assessing the cross-cultural validity, researchers used both within-network and between-network approaches to construct validation. They examined the Inventory of School Motivation using standard confirmatory factor analysis and compared proposed the models with a series of different models. They analyzed the relationship of the different goals to theoretically- relevant variables.

Participants were 823 third year high school students from one public school coming from low class and lower middle school class families in Manila, Philippines.

The instruments used were Filipino Language version of the Inventory of School Motivation which is a 43- item Likert scale designed to measure the different type of goals in the Personal investment theory. They also used an objective Chemistry Test of 75 item multiple choice to measure academic achievement. An Affect to school subscale of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire was used to measure the construct.

In the Method of Analysis, Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the extent to which the observed data fit the proposed multidimensional and hierarchal structure of the 43-item scale.

Results show that in terms of within-network, the analysis showed that hierarchical and multidimensional model had good fit indices. In terms of between network study, there were different types of motivational goals which were positively correlated to affect school and academic achievement. Thus, the Personal investment theory offers a better alternative in studying motivational goals in diverse cultural settings.


(3)  Introduction and Literature Review

The purpose of the study was clear and the reason behind the study was significant as it stated that there seems to be a lack of study examining the validity of Personal Investment Theory in different cultural settings such as the Asian countries, thus, the study was conducted in the Philippine Setting.

The introduction was well organized and clear. It started off by introducing why students go to school. Then moved forward to the importance of goal in students’ motivation. The researchers summarized past researchers by indicating the gaps that resulted in the past research that there were limitations in the achievement goal theory and that there are other types of goals that could be relevant in the school setting, thus, establishing the importance of why the researchers are conducting their research.  Although the researchers defined their concepts well in relation to their research question, it is not extensive enough to fully establish the importance of Personal Investment theory in Philippine context. There seems to be lack of emphasis on Primary resources that led to the importance of the research.

(4) Research Problem, Question, or Hypothesis

The research problem was not clearly stated in the study, The hypothesis is clearly stated as the structure of students’ goal could be described as hierarchichal and multidimensional in line with the theorizing in Personal Investment Theory. The stated hypothesis was not able to communicate clearly the variables, type of research and population of the study.

(5) Sampling

The population was described adequately as it were able to identify where the students came from. The sample was clearly described through their gender, age and year level of study. The method of selecting the sample was clear as it clearly stated that they were chosen through convenience. Because the sampling was a method of convenience, results could likely be affected if it were random. By using a sample of convenience, results could not be generalized as representative.

(6) Measures

The evidence of validity was clearly presented and adequate in relation to the research. The researchers used an instrument that was deemed valid in the Philippine setting based on past studies that were done in the Philippine Setting. The instruments used were clearly described and administered by trained interviewers and observers as they were the teachers who administered the experiment. Though the instruments were clearly described, the method of how they executed the instruments were not clearly described in the study. The researchers failed to identify when or how they administered the instrument described.

(7) Design

Procedures for collecting information were described fully. The researchers used Confirmatory factor analysis which was defined clearly and was able to address an issue regarding the use of CFA (having more than five indicators per factor in a large sample would lead to unsatisfactory fit in the measurement model) in the form of Item “parcels” as indicator in the CFA. There is no evidence that the researchers would be biased in their sampling.

(8) Results

The findings were presented clearly. The researchers used a Confirmatory factor analysis in their statistical tests. They showed the results by presenting tables to identify the correlation among goals that lead to the establishment of the researchers’ hypothesis. The researchers were able to describe the results from the table presented and used the description to lead to a conclusion of their study.

(9) Discussion

The discussions were based solely on the research problem and results. The researchers did not steer away from the purpose of the study. The interpretation was not separate from the results. Interpretations were stated after each table presented.. Limitations were defined in the study by stating that researchers could hope for more results if they used a random sampling rather than convenience. Conclusions made were based on the results interpreted. Researchers were able to compare results of their study to previous studies by stating that their results extends to previous findings on validity. Conclusions are reasonable in relation to their methodology. The External Validity of the study was the third year high school students from one public school in Manila. External validity could be affected in the form of physiological aspects of the students when taking the experiment, thus could result to a different result.